Development and Operations, better known as DevOps, have nowadays become a frequently-used term in the tech industry. The new software development form has entirely revolutionized the development and distribution process of modern software.
DevOps has emerged as a lifesaver for the IT departments as numerous issues remained exclusive to IT departments before its initiation. This further led to the IT team encountering unnecessary repercussions. Now that they can utilize DevOps, the burden is further divided with the entire organization, leading to smoother product delivery.
As more and more organizations are getting familiar with the concept, the demand for competent DevOps engineers is surging. Aspiring to become a DevOps engineer is a viable aim in 2020, but since the job requires extensive knowledge and skills, the candidates have to go through a sophisticated hiring process. If you are about to appear in a DevOps interview, given below are the best DevOps interview questions and answers in 2020 you need to know about in detail. Before that, there is a brief explanation of all the skills you need to have to qualify as a DevOps Engineer.
Skills Needed to Become a DevOps Engineer?
Here are the skills every organization require in a DevOps engineer:
- Proficiency in common web languages such as Python, Java, PHP, or Ruby.
- Familiarity with standard infrastructure automation software such as Ansible, Chef, Windows PowerShell DSC, SaltStack, or Puppet.
- Strong communication skills to communicate and cooperate with several teams and departments across the organization.
DevOps Interview Questions and Answers for Experienced Candidates
1. How do Agile and DevOps differ from each other?
Ans: Here are the key differences between Agile and DevOps:
- Agility: Agility is merely required in development when it comes to Agile methodology. However, in the case of DevOps, the dexterity is needed for both development and operations.
- Practices: Agile involves processes like Agile Kanban, Agile Scrum, etc. while DevOps comprise practices like Continuous Delivery, Continuous Monitoring, Continuous Testing, and Continuous Integration.
- Primary Emphasis: Timeliness is primarily emphasized in Agile, while in DevOps, both quality and timeliness get equal focus.
- Release Cycles: Agile generally has shorter release cycles, while DevOps' release cycles propose immediate feedback.
- Feedback Source: Agile receives feedbacks via customers, while DevOps gets them through monitoring tools.
- Work Scope: Agile's scope of work only revolves around agility; however, DevOps scope includes both agility and the need for automation.
This is one of the DevOps interview questions that really brings out your knowledge.
2. Why is DevOps needed?
Ans: Nowadays, organizations prioritize providing small features to consumers through a concise release trains series, instead of a big feature set. The approach offers numerous benefits like improved immediate customer feedback and improved software quality. These kinds of DevOps interview questions need to be answered carefully.
All this eventually leads to a higher level of satisfaction to the consumers. To avail of the same, organizations have to:
- Reduce the lead time between the fixes
- Increase the frequency of deployment
- Prepare for a backup in case the new release crashes
- Lower the crash rate of new product releases
DevOps acts as the one-stop solution for all these needs, resulting in smoother software delivery.
3. What are the generally involved roles in DevOps?
Ans: There are two general roles involved with the DevOps activities, namely:
- DevOps Architect: The architect is the leader accountable for the complete DevOps procedure.
- DevOps Engineer: A DevOps engineer should know their way around SCM, Agile, CD/CI, Database management, and infrastructure automation. Developers should have skills in scripting or coding with the expertise in system admin or deployment.
3. What are the best ten tools for DevOps within the industry?
Ans: For these kinds of DevOps interview questions, latest market knowledge is necessary. Here are the best DevOps tools in the market currently:
- SVN, GIT
- Nexus, Artifactory
- Ansible, Puppet, Chef
- Splunk, Nagios
4. What are the diverse DevOps phases?
Ans: This DevOps Interview question highlights your level of experience. A DevOps lifecycle includes various phases like:
- Plan: The initial step is to plan the application and get a rough idea of the development procedure.
- Code: The software is coded according to the end-user needs.
- Develop: Start developing the application by incorporating the codes prepared within the previous step.
- Testing: Now, test the application and see if any remapping is needed.
- Incorporate: After testing, the codes received from various programmers are accumulated.
- Deploy: Deploy the code within a cloud platform to see if any changes affect the website's traffic functionality.
- Function: If needed, the functions are executed on the codes.
- Observe: Now monitor the app's performance as per the end-user needs.
5. What are the advantages of using DevOps?
Ans: Here are the business and technical benefits of using DevOps:
- Stabilized working environment
- Quicker delivery features
- Increased time to add product value
- Regular software delivery
- Quicker problem fixes
- Reduced complicated issues
6. Explain configuration management's Role in DevOps?
Ans: Configuration management aids DevOps in numerous ways, and the most common ones are:
- Allowing management to handle multiple systems.
- Managing the IT infrastructure by standardizing the resource configuration.
- Integrating the whole infrastructure, thus helping in administrating and managing various servers.
7. Explain how you can use DevOps in a real-life scenario.
Ans: The majority of the organizations are utilizing DevOps in their routine, and you can use their example. For instance, Etsy is one of the most renowned eCommerce platforms that provides vintage and handmade items. The venture encountered sluggish website updates causing the site to crash frequently. Naturally, this affected their revenue and hurt the brand presence as well.
However, it all changed after the company assigned a new tech management team. Etsy evolved from the waterfall method to an approach that supported agility. Now, the platform is fully automated, and its new continuous delivery procedures result in over 50 deployments per day. These type of DevOps interview questions and answers help in properly highlighting your assertiveness and knowledge.
8. What do you mean by DevOps' anti-patterns?
Ans: A DevOps anti-pattern signals to a DevOps approach that, despite being successful in other ventures fails to work within a particular premise. Simply put, anti-patterns are the myths regarding DevOps. Here are the most common DevOps anti-patterns:
- A distinct DevOps team is needed in a company
- DevOps means Agile
- DevOps is not an option for a unique venture
- DevOps cannot be availed if the available workforce is inapt
- Undefined KPIs at the beginning of a DevOps shift
9. What is Puppet in the context of DevOps?
Ans: Puppet is amidst the most reputed configuration management software used to automate administration activities. The tool utilizes a Master-Slave hierarchy where two individuals converse through a channel that is encrypted.
System administrators have to go through numerous tedious tasks like configuring the installed servers repeatedly. They can write scripts for the same, but the solution is not viable for extensive infrastructure. There comes Configuration Management as an ideal solution.
As an esteemed Configuration Management tool, Puppet:
- Routinely verifies the host configuration's place
- Outlines the specific configurations in regards to every host
10. What do you mean by CAMS within DevOps?
Ans: CAMS is the short form generally used to describe the root principles of DevOps approach:
- The C stands for Culture
- The A stands for automation
- The M stands for Measurement
- The S stands for Sharing
11. Name some KPIs utilized to ensure the success of DevOps.
Ans: KPI is the acronym used for Key Performance Indicators, and it can be used to measure a DevOps process's success. Here are the most common KPIs:
- Defect escape rate
- Application performance
- Customer tickets
- The automated test pass percentage
- Deployment frequency
- Application usage and traffic
- Change volume
- Lead time
- Deployment time
- Failed deployments
- Error rates
To Wrap Up
As the demand for proficient DevOps engineers is surging, organizations are putting heavy emphasis on hiring the best candidates. Resultantly, the hiring process for the same has become more sophisticated in recent years.
If you are aiming to land a DevOps job, then there are certain questions you must prepare beforehand. Although different interviews indeed involve different questions, there are still several vital topics almost every interview includes.
The above-mentioned topics are among the most frequently asked DevOps interview questions. Therefore, you must go through them and increase your chances of getting hired.